干細胞之家 - 中國干細胞行業門戶第一站

 

 

搜索
朗日生物

干細胞技術討論區

干細胞臨床應用技術交流

免疫細胞治療專區

歡迎關注干細胞微信公眾號

查看: 67054|回復: 149
go

Direct Derivation of Neural Rosettes from Cloned Bovine Blastocysts: A Model of [復制鏈接]

Rank: 7Rank: 7Rank: 7

積分
威望
0  
包包
483  
樓主
發表于 2009-3-5 00:00 |只看該作者 |倒序瀏覽 |打印
作者:Giovanna Lazzaria, Silvia Colleonia, Serena G. Giannellib, Dario Brunettia, Elena Colombob, Irina Lagutinaa, Cesare Gallia,c, Vania Broccolib作者單位:aLaboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Istituto Sperimentale Italiano Lazzaro Spallanzani, CIZ s.r.l., Cremona, Italy;bStem Cell Research Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy;cDipartimento Clinico Veterinario, Universit di Bologna, Ozzano Emilia, Italy ! p  P( E! K$ B8 g. l! p
                  - V1 H3 C  i- l4 V0 q0 h3 n
                  
: m5 V5 U  ?- B" W, o- x          $ H( q5 O- D& U6 V0 Z/ a
                        
# J5 y7 w1 V( k# J            
" T" |4 A4 K6 g( A2 R            6 e, t- ?% }$ t- s9 ~
            * ^. e- i& J6 M4 e
            
" n% Y! K6 y7 j- t! j9 I                     
0 K6 c" b; B/ W( `$ Q% u        
0 \' [5 e6 |  C& T" X9 a        
3 a9 ^, x6 U9 m7 s        % U" Y0 Q4 n6 d$ s7 c$ X8 N$ T
          【摘要】
5 h  C9 q6 j3 {) ~      Embryonic stem cells differentiate into neuroectodermal cells under specific culture conditions. In primates, these cells are organized into rosettes expressing Pax6 and Sox1 and are responsive to inductive signals such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoic acid. However, direct derivation of organized neuroectoderm in vitro from preimplantation mammalian embryos has never been reported. Here, we show that bovine inner cell masses from nuclear transfer and fertilized embryos, grown on feeders in serum-free medium, form polarized rosette structures expressing nestin, Pax6, Pax7, Sox1, and Otx2 and exhibiting interkinetic nuclear migration activity and cell junction distribution as in the developing neural tube. After in vitro expansion, neural rosettes give rise to p75-positive neural crest precursor cell lines capable of long-term proliferation and differentiation in autonomic and sensory peripheral neurons, glial cells, melanocytes, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes, recapitulating in vitro the unique plasticity of the neural crest lineage. Challenging the rosette dorsal fate by early exposure to Shh induces the expression of ventral markers Isl1, Nkx2.2, and Nkx6.1 and differentiation of mature astrocytes and neurons of central nervous system ventral identity, demonstrating appropriate response to inductive signals. All together, these findings indicate that neural rosettes directly derived from cloned and fertilized bovine embryos represent an in vitro model of early neural specification and differentiation events. Moreover, this study provides a source of highly proliferative neural crest precursor cell lines of wide differentiation potential for cell therapy and tissue engineering applications.   R. O& U2 g" Y' e2 f# Y/ e& x
          【關鍵詞】 Cell culture Stem/progenitor cell Embryo Neural differentiation+ \: `2 n3 E+ \3 b8 {; o9 c0 b; T& n
                  INTRODUCTION5 e) Q  d% Z$ J7 s

$ Y7 S) A, K) wDuring the process of neurulation in vertebrate embryos, the ectoderm folds at its most dorsal point, giving rise to the outer epidermis and the inner neural tube while the neural crest originates in between. In mammals, in vitro models of neural differentiation have been reported for embryonic stem cells (ESCs), both mouse and primate, whereby differentiation of ESCs in neuroectodermal cells generally occurs in serum-free medium or in coculture with stromal feeders that produce inductive signals .* T; |' a' h. S- i% G

# ~5 ]" y8 n8 S4 ]% l" x1 t5 LThe aim of this study was to devise a method of neural induction directly from a mammalian embryo, without the intermediate stage of ESC derivation, to provide a novel in vitro model of early neural differentiation events in mammals. This study is carried out in a bovine model, a species in which the conditions for true ESC derivation have not been established yet, although several reports have indicated that bovine inner cell mass (ICM) cells can be cultured in vitro and induced to differentiate in a variety of cell types .
. ~* D! A0 q/ H/ V/ D+ d) e' z% d6 q3 G4 @
Our results show that organized neuroectoderm, in the form of neural rosettes, can be directly derived from both fertilized and cloned bovine embryos. We demonstrate that neural rosettes display several morphological and functional features typical of the developing neural tube. Moreover, after in vitro expansion of rosette cells with growth factors, we characterized a process reminiscent of the emigration of neural crest cells from the neural tube, giving rise to highly proliferative neural crest precursor cell lines capable to differentiate in all neural crest derivatives.- d, d  y' f  q7 M' P0 u

: A8 r( J+ g. a, c4 l2 \9 ?MATERIALS AND METHODS' h5 k3 R# z' y! H
. d: Y( f  ^' O: L3 }
Unless otherwise indicated, all chemicals were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, http://www.sigmaaldrich.com).5 `: O) n+ W. [  I! Q. N% W

& v8 S5 o/ `( @+ r, H5 w! XProduction of Cloned and Fertilized Bovine Embryos
* i3 d; F/ p5 W
) l& y; e& B- M  M# U0 hThe procedure for generating bovine embryos by in vitro maturation and nuclear transfer (NT) or by in vitro fertilization (IVF) was described previously  with 16 mg/ml bovine serum albumin in 5% CO2 and 5% O2 up to day 7¨C8 (fertilization = day 0). For production of IVF embryos, matured oocytes were fertilized in SOFaa medium without glucose supplemented with 1 µg/ml heparin, 20 µM D-penicillamine, 100 µM hypotaurine, and 1 µM epinephrine. Motile spermatozoa, obtained by centrifugation of frozen thawed semen on Percoll discontinuous density gradient, were added at a final concentration of 0.5 million sperm per milliliter. After incubation for 18¨C20 hours, presumptive zygotes were denuded of cumulus cells by vortexing and were transferred in SOFaa medium as described above.
0 X& ?, K; \# x7 @8 d$ \* b3 W" \2 ]! l4 R' P
Derivation of Neural Rosettes and Neural Crest Precursor Cell Lines% }" o+ Q8 B" I. |0 O
- ]) C: y! N$ z. J  K
On day 7¨C8, ICMs of blastocyst stage embryos, both NT and IVF, were isolated with insulin needles or by immunosurgery and plated on mitomycin (Sigma-Aldrich)-inactivated STO fibroblasts in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F-12 medium supplemented with 15% knockout serum replacement (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, http://www.invitrogen.com), 2 mM glutamine, 100 µM ß-mercaptoethanol, with or without 2 ng/ml bFGF. One week later, the outgrowths were disaggregated with 0.05% trypsin-EDTA and replated. After 10 days, rosettes containing colonies were separated from STO feeders, cut into small fragments with insulin needles, and plated on matrigel (1:100 dilution)-coated dishes in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with 0.6% glucose, 3 mM sodium bicarbonate, 2 mM glutamine, 5 mM HEPES, 25 µg/ml insulin, 60 µM putrescine, 20 nM progesterone, 100 µg/ml transferrin, 30 nM sodium selenite, 2 µg/ml heparin, 10 ng/ml bFGF, and 20 ng/ml EGF. After 2¨C3 days, the cultures were trypsinized in single cells, plated at 20,000 per cm2, and further passaged at 3¨C4-day intervals on matrigel-coated dishes.
$ q( P+ p( i: b$ ]: T6 g4 x$ ?
0 w* p& y: C  Z. I. l6 ]In Vitro Differentiation* u+ P! @% `& a& k% t

" N7 P4 v' Z2 _4 hNeural crest precursor cell lines were differentiated by growth factor withdrawal and supplementation of ascorbic acid (200 µM) starting from passage three onward, approximately every five passages. The cultures were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) 10¨C35 days after induction.
! X8 s. J$ X$ M( u1 i
( o1 p" U* a  X% t, Z! zIn Vivo Differentiation
2 g% W  k. u" r' ~
$ |7 X& h( v; `' A" c/ pFrom 40 to 70 million neural precursor cells at passages 3¨C4 or at passages 15¨C20 derived from four different embryos were injected subcutaneously in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice. Animals were sacrificed 4 and 9 weeks later for early passage and late passage transplants, respectively. Tumors were fixed in 4% PFA for immunohistochemistry.0 |) T! M5 I' S; w5 t7 [: z
9 n' H- G' i* I
Bromodeoxyuridine Staining
% z5 R7 r" f: j' c! u4 P. t7 r, I4 C5 z' V$ g8 m* a
Rosettes were incubated in medium containing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) (3 µM, 30 minutes) before fixation in 4% PFA followed by postfixation in 70% ethanol. To perform immunohistochemistry against BrdU, DNA was chemically denatured by incubation in 2 N HCl for 30 minutes. Pregnant female CD1 mice at embryonic day 10.5 were injected with BrdU (100 µg/g of body weight) and sacrificed 90 minutes later. Immunohistochemical stainings on embryos were performed as previously described .
+ n3 ~4 `4 O9 `
; K' J8 N4 H+ K" h. I) HImmunohistochemistry and Microscopy$ Y% M- u# Y- v2 S9 u8 K7 d5 t9 H
: V! N' B3 Q# I+ K" g9 W0 T+ \& \
Cells were fixed with 4% PFA with or without 0.2% gluteraldehyde. Unspecific binding blocking (10% donkey serum, 0.1% Triton in phosphate-buffered saline ) was followed by primary antibody incubation (4¡ãC, overnight) after which secondary antibody incubation (1 hour at room temperature) was performed. Finally, slides were mounted in mounting medium (DakoCytomation, Glostrup, Denmark, http://www.dakocytomation.com). Primary and secondary antibodies are listed in the supplemental online data. For histology, slides were hydrated and stained for 5 minutes with Alcian Blue (1% in 3% CH3COOH water solution), toluidin blue (0.02% in H2O), or hematoxylin (0.75%) and eosin (1%).
" N0 j. |1 H2 j& K0 u0 N8 |+ p) h7 p2 B0 S5 r  ^
Fluorescence-Activated Cell-Sorting Analysis0 `1 Y) t2 Q, R
3 T5 a7 Y8 p% w3 h. R3 Q, v
One million cells were trypsinized, washed in PBS twice, and incubated with either no primary antibody or phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated anti-human p75 (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, http://www.bd.com) or an isotype control (15 minutes at 4¡ãC). Cells were then washed and analyzed on a Beckman Coulter (Fullerton, CA, http://www.beckmancoulter.com) Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. PE fluorescence resulting from direct excitation at 488 nm by the argon laser was detected using a 575-nm bandpass filter and compared with the isotype control. A minimum of 20,000 cells was analyzed for each sample.5 Q7 K; O+ h8 a9 z- v# P

# Q* o" c! G) _% v8 T/ s$ `) T; xReverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis# H5 U1 _2 v1 p$ F7 p

! ?. M. [6 P2 E6 ~; e1 K/ U% T" kTotal RNA was extracted from bovine blastocysts, multiple rosette colonies, or undifferentiated neural crest precursors (one million) with TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen). cDNA was synthesized using Thermoscript reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system (Invitrogen) according to the supplier's protocol and was used as the template for PCRs. Reactions were performed in 25 µl containing cDNA, primers (as listed in supplemental online data), one x PCR master mix, and AmpliTAQ Gold (Applied BioSystems, Foster City, CA, http://www.appliedbiosystems.com).
- i" p- b1 s" P
1 Z( B9 A) M0 zAll experiments that involved the use of animals were carried out under veterinary supervision in accordance with Decreto Legislativo 116/92¡ªwhich regulates the use of animal experimentation in Italy¡ªand were approved by the Local Ethical Committee of Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione (Cremona, Italy).0 g" `  p. V8 b5 \6 m( q! M+ A
/ g# t$ b" F( U3 Q
RESULTS
- y) x; t: r. d9 e8 f- p3 c/ V' Y, l' p2 L0 {. V
Derivation of Neural Rosettes
* S2 i8 W3 }7 p, M( X9 A; l* d, \6 f. W8 d3 f, b
Isolated ICMs from fertilized and cloned bovine embryos were plated on inactivated STO feeders in serum-free medium with or without bFGF supplementation. The plating efficiency was very high, approaching 90% (35/40). One week after plating, the derived outgrowths, still positive for the totipotency markers Oct4 and Sox2, were disaggregated, and after an additional 10 days of culture, extensive formation of colonies containing clusters of rosettes was observed (Fig. 1A¨C1D) in approximately 60% of the outgrowths, with no difference between NT and IVF embryo outgrowths and both in the presence and absence of exogenous bFGF.
- `  M0 a, q8 B& m  n9 f7 E9 S' s. v9 D5 R
Figure 1. Derivation and characterization of neural rosettes. (A): Day 7 bovine blastocyst. (B): Primary outgrowth. Rosettes colony on feeders (C), detached from feeders (D), and on matrigel-coated dish (E). Rosettes stained positive for nestin, Otx2, Pax6, and Pax7 (F¨CI). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on blastocysts and rosettes. Bovine blastocysts are positive for the totipotent markers Oct4, Rex1, and Sox2. Neural rosettes maintain Sox2 but downregulate Oct4 and Rex1 and upregulate Sox1 together with a panel of forebrain (Otx1, Pax6, and Emx2), midbrain (Otx1 and Dmbx1), and hindbrain (Hoxb1) genes, whereas spinal cord genes (Hoxb2, Hoxb4, and Hoxb9) are not expressed (J). Labeling of S-phase nuclei (BrdU staining) and mitotic nuclei (PH3 staining) in rosettes (K, L, N, O) and embryonic day 10.5 murine neural tube (M, P). Colocalization of BrdU and PH3 (Q¨CS). Apical localization of cell junctions stained with ZO-1 and ß-catenin (adherens junctions) in rosettes (T, V) and neural tube (U, W). Peripheral localization of laminin in rosettes (X) and neural tube (Y). Scale bars = 50 µm (A¨CC, E, F, L, O, R, X), 100 µm (G¨CI, K, M, N, P, Q, S, W, Y), and 3 mm (D). (A¨CC, F¨CS) are derived from in vitro fertilized embryos; (D, E) are derived from nuclear transfer embryos. Abbreviations: Blast, blastocyst; BrdU, bromodeoxyuridine; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; PH3, phospho-histone H3; Roset, rosette.
. Z8 t5 V3 }8 l4 k" Q( w
+ Z" S" W& ~$ m( [( }, _Immunocytochemical analyses were performed on isolated rosette colonies after mild collagenase treatment and plating in the absence of feeders. Rosettes stained positive for markers of early neural tube such as nestin, Otx2, and Pax6 and for the dorsal marker Pax7 (Fig. 1F¨C1I). These findings were more extensively confirmed by RT-PCR, in which rosettes were found positive for Sox2, Sox1, and nestin and negative for Oct4, whereas Rex1 had lower expression as compared with intact blastocysts, indicating the loss of the ICM undifferentiated state. To identify their regional identity, rosettes were tested and found positive for the expression of markers of forebrain (Otx1, Foxg1, and Emx2), midbrain (Otx1 and Dmbx1), and hindbrain (Hoxb1), whereas spinal cord genes (Hoxb4 and Hoxb9) were not expressed (Fig. 1J). In addition, the expression of Pax7, but not of Nkx2.2 and Isl1, was detected, indicating that neural rosettes directly derived from bovine embryos, under the conditions described in this study, are dorsalized neural structures.( \8 E* @7 n6 T& p  C) f
1 k9 m! p# {' c9 K7 V; b
Neural rosettes derived in vitro are morphologically reminiscent of the developing neural tube in vivo; however, no direct comparison has been reported yet. A well-known feature of neural tube cells is the movement of their nuclei according to the cell cycle stage referred to as interkinetic nuclear migration . Rosette cells were found positive for Glast and vimentin, and Glast expression was detected also by RT-PCR together with brain lipid binding protein (supplemental online Fig. 6).
  Q5 H. X. A( f! E3 s* A6 D$ \; T9 K; S6 ]: [9 I, J% ~) O% I0 Q# F
Characterization of Neural Crest Precursors
, V& ~7 {4 ]& ]. \) v# p3 z( R
  Q, ^- j2 U. l# ~* NTo further investigate the dorsal specification identified by RT-PCR, the rosette colonies were probed with the neural crest marker p75. Remarkably, we found extensive p75 staining mainly at the periphery of the rosettes, indicating a clear neural crest specification (Fig. 2A). After dissociation in single cells by trypsin treatment, the suspension of rosette cells was plated on matrigel-coated dishes in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with bFGF and EGF and additives commonly used for neural stem cells. The morphology of the derived cultures was predominantly as illustrated in Figure 2B, 2E (9/13 derivations, six from NT and three from IVF embryos). Due to the proliferation of the outer cells and the parallel reduction in size and cell number of the rosettes proper, the rosette structures were progressively lost with passage number (Fig. 2B). Immunocytological analyses confirmed that the proliferating cells were p75-positive, and Pax6 staining was observed in the residual inner rosette cells (Fig. 2C). With passaging, virtually all cells became positive to p75 as shown by immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis (Fig. 2E¨C2G). In parallel, RT-PCR showed a progressive loss of Sox1 and an increased expression of the typical neural crest marker Slug followed by Msx1, Sox10, and FoxD3, confirming a clear neural crest specification (Fig. 2D, 2H). These findings further support the hypothesis that rosettes display morphological and functional features common to the developing neural tube and also give rise to p75-positive cell lines through a mechanism that is reminiscent of the emigration of neural crest cells from the neural tube itself.
1 M* J2 d% ?( b3 ~% N, L/ A  }" a1 J# j; E! ^( ^
Figure 2. Identification and isolation of neural crest precursors. (A, B): Cells at the periphery of rosettes (asterisks) were p75-positive. (B): With passaging, Pax6-positive rosette inner cells (arrows in , passage 7). Similarly, Sox1 was downregulated (D), whereas neural crest-specific genes were upregulated (H). Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis showed that more than 90% (n = 3) of the population express p75 above the background level represented by an isotype control. (I): Representative growth curve of one established neural crest precursor cell line. Scale bars = 50 µm (B, C, E, F) and 100 µm (A). (A, C¨CF, H) are derived from in vitro fertilized embryos; (B, G, I) are derived from nuclear transfer embryos. Abbreviations: GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; PE, phycoerythrin.
  N9 k" i# F9 o0 b; |) e1 a
$ r- U2 }( n/ V0 Y. {Four of the nine cell lines, three from NT and one from IVF embryos, characterized by the neural crest markers mentioned above were cultured up to 120 population doublings. The growth curve was linear (Fig. 2I), and the average doubling time was 22.8 ¡À 2.1 hours. Karyotype analysis showed that three out of four lines were karyotipically normal (n = 60). The remaining four cell lines (out of the 13 derivations) had a mixed morphology in which both migrating cells and rosette cells appeared to proliferate. In addition, they were found positive both for Sox1 and Slug (indicating a mixed phenotype), were capable of limited proliferation, and were not investigated further. By contrast, when the nine cell lines expressing neural crest markers were induced to differentiate by growth factor withdrawal and addition of ascorbic acid, a wide variety of cell types were characterized. Groups of ß-III-tubulin-positive neurons together with large clusters of pigmented cells positive for Pmel17, a specific marker for mature melanocytes, were identified (Fig. 3A¨C3D). Further characterization revealed neurons positive for peripherin, most of which (75% ¡À 5%, n = 155) were found positive for Brn3A (Fig. 3E), a marker for the sensory lineage, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase identified autonomic neurons (15% ¡À 3%, n = 155), mainly found in clusters, and only a few were found isolated (Fig. 3F), therefore confirming their neural crest identity. Among the differentiated cells were patches of CNPase- (Fig. 3G), A2B5- (Fig. 3H), and S100- (not shown) positive cells, indicating differentiation toward an oligoglial phenotype, but we were unable to detect markers of mature Schwann cells. We also found large areas of smooth muscle actin-positive cells (Fig. 3I), again consistent with the derivation of a smooth muscle phenotype from neural crest precursor cell lines. When differentiation was prolonged for more than 2 weeks, nodular structures were formed consisting of bright cells surrounded by an acellular matrix. Such structures increased in size and number both with the time of differentiation and the passage number of the cell lines. Alcian Blue and collagen II staining demonstrated the cartilaginous nature of the nodules (Fig. 3J, 3K), and von Kossa staining indicated a variable degree of calcium accumulation (Fig. 3L). Thus, we could conclude that the full differentiation program of cranial neural crest, including neurons, melanocytes, glia, smooth muscle, and chondrocytes, was recapitulated in vitro starting from neural crest precursors derived from preimplantation bovine embryos.
( |9 ~9 w8 K& z$ g' i' g- S1 e# [. g& g; Q3 z2 i, ]
Figure 3. In vitro differentiation of neural crest precursors. (A, B): Differentiated cultures contained clusters of neurons (A) and patches of pigmented cells (B) positive to pmel17 (C). (D): General neural commitment and specific peripheric neuronal differentiation were identified by ß-III-tubulin and peripherin stainings, respectively. Brn3a (E) and tyrosine hydroxylase (F) revealed either sensory or autonomic neuronal fate. Glial precursors were identified by CNPase and A2B5 staining (G, H), and smooth muscle cells were identified by smooth muscle actin staining (I). Nodule-like structures were positive for both Alcian Blue (, histological section), indicating cartilage differentiation, whereas calcium deposition was revealed by von Kossa staining (L). Scale bars = 50 µm (E, F, I, K) and 100 µm (A¨CD, G, H, L). (C¨CH, K) are derived from in vitro fertilized embryos; (A, B, I, J, L) are derived from nuclear transfer embryos.: ]& r5 E0 F) a. [, r, ]# ~: Z

' e# I% r, \, w" FNeural Rosettes Respond to Inductive Signals
  Y$ U; F- @. w1 y. g8 X
8 p; K: O+ \$ P+ `+ fDuring neural tube morphogenesis, Shh suppresses the development of dorsal tissues, including neural crest formation, and promotes the differentiation of ventral central nervous system (CNS) tissues . When the Shh-treated cells were induced to differentiate, 72% ¡À 6% (n = 135) of the cells stained positive for ß-III-tubulin (Fig. 4B) and neuronal cell adhesion molecule but not peripherin, indicating CNS neuronal commitment. Furthermore, glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes were detected (7% ¡À 2%, n = 135) (Fig. 4C). The remaining cell population resulted vimentin  and ß-III-tubulin¨C, suggesting an undifferentiated neural precursor state (not shown). Neurons were mostly GABAergic, (48% ¡À 8%, n = 125) and glutamatergic (32% ¡À 6%, n = 125) but not dopaminergic (Fig. 4D, 4E). Isl1  and Nkx2.1  neurons were found scattered on the plate, further supporting their ventralized fate (Fig. 4F, 4G).4 j- Y2 Q* e% V  I4 }# Q
* [6 k% _# P' D5 M
Figure 4. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) treatment. (A): Shh repressed central nervous system dorsal markers such as Pax7 as well as neural crest-specific genes like Slug, Sox10, and Msx1, whereas genes of the ventral neural tube (Nkx6.1, Isl1, and Nkx2.2) and the floor plate (FoxA2 and Shh) were induced. After differentiation, large numbers of ß-III-tubulin (ßIIItub)-positive neurons (72% ¡À 4%, n = 148) (B) and some scattered glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes (8% ¡À 2%, n = 148) (C) were identified. No signs of neural crest differentiation were observed. ß-III-Tubulin-positive neurons were identified as GABAergic (D) or glutamatergic (E) but not dopaminergic. Differentiated neurons were found to be positive for ventral-specific markers such as Nkx2.1 (F) and Isl1 (G). Scale bars = 50 µm (F, G) and 100 µm (B¨CE). (A¨CG) are derived from in vitro fertilized embryos. Abbreviation: GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein.( m4 X4 n6 O% {/ s, @/ n0 Z; m; c

9 m' Z1 X" I' _7 ZIn Vivo Differentiation in Ectopic Sites
; P! c6 A* R6 m: j: ?+ o2 L4 R5 w5 t
We finally tested the in vivo differentiation and tumorigenicity of neural crest precursor cell lines by in vivo transplant in an ectopic site. Cells at early (passages 3¨C4) and advanced passages (passages 15¨C20) were injected subcutaneously in NOD-SCID mice. Tumors were formed in four of six early transplants and four of four late transplants. Their weight ranged from 730 to 1,620 mg for early transplants and from 145 to 1,540 mg for late transplants. Early transplants gave rise to large soft tumors of uniform appearance composed exclusively of tubular/rosettes structures (Fig. 5A¨C5C) similar to the organization typically found in primitive neuroectodermal tumors . Tumor cells stained positive for ß-III-tubulin and vimentin (Fig. 5D, 5E). Some staining for p75 was also detected in between the rosettes/tubules (Fig. 5F).8 Z8 o" ?% p0 w9 H* [2 |" t% q$ }6 g

  D8 u2 D9 d- Y: WFigure 5. Subcutaneous injections of neural crest precursors in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient mice. (A): Tumoral mass derived from subcutaneous injections of neural crest precursors at passages 3¨C4. (B¨CD): The growing tissue was organized in rosettes (B) expressing vimentin (C) and displaying features similar to their in vitro counterparts, such as ZO-1 staining (green) and phospho-histone H3-positive mitotic nuclei (D). (E): Cells between rosettes were identified mainly as ß-III-tubulin-positive neurons. (F): Some p75-positive neural crest precursors were also identified. (G, H): Tumoral masses derived from subcutaneous injections of neural crest precursors at passages 15¨C20 of uniform, pearly appearance and hard consistency. (I): Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed a homogenous cartilaginous organization of the tumoral tissue. (J): Alcian Blue staining of an area with arrayed and hypertrophic chondrocytes. (K): A well-developed perichondrium-like structure observed at the edges of the tissue (arrowheads). (L): Extracellular cartilage matrix characterized by metachromatic staining with toluidin blue. Scale bars = 12 mm (A), 100 µm (B¨CF), 10 mm (G, H), 300 µm (I, J), and 50 µm (K, L). (A¨CF) are derived from nuclear transfer embryos; (G¨CL) are derived from in vitro fertilized embryos.1 l5 ~2 v7 a- m/ f( }" k0 w

8 J4 E9 v3 ?1 ^- Z6 K# IThese findings indicated that although rosette cells maintain a high proliferative ability in ectopic locations, their differentiation potential is restricted to neural fate. By contrast, tumors of hard consistency were derived from the more advanced passages (Fig. 5G, 5H). Cytological analysis with alcian blue (Fig. 5J) and toluidin (Fig. 5L) stainings indicated that the tumors were solid masses of cartilage surrounded by a well-differentiated perichondrium. Thus, cell fate restriction obtained by in vitro induction of rosette cells into neural crest progenitors was maintained in vivo also in ectopic graftings, suggesting the establishment of a stable cell fate identity. In no instance was teratocarcinoma formation observed.
) V' f5 w9 Q2 L( J  \$ A% y% h) ~) c8 f1 r9 D6 d( q9 |' V% ?
DISCUSSION
4 h5 U4 X8 B7 W3 A* ?
, r( I, B/ I3 DIn this paper, we have described the direct derivation of organized neuroectoderm in vitro, in the form of neural rosettes, from bovine blastocysts. The high efficiency of derivation, both from fertilized and NT embryos, indicates a strong neural commitment of bovine ICM cells under serum-free culture conditions as previously shown for mouse ESCs and human ESCs (hESCs). Interestingly, we found that serum (10%) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 (10 ng/ml) supplementation completely blocked rosette formation in agreement with the inhibitory role that BMPs exert on neural induction in vivo . These findings suggest a remarkable analogy between primate ESCs and bovine ICM cells in the response to neural differentiation conditions. Moreover, our results are in overall agreement with the "neural default" model described in fish and amphibia, according to which ectodermal cells will undergo neural differentiation unless instructed by BMPs and related molecules to follow an epidermal cell fate. Thus, differentiation of bovine embryonic cells, using the method described in this study, represents a powerful in vitro model for investigating the molecular mechanisms of neural induction in mammals, in which results have not been conclusive so far.4 j& ~2 @' [: }9 Q
9 |# u1 j# C9 b  P
Bovine neural rosettes express early neural marker genes such as nestin, Sox1, and Pax6 and are characterized by a peculiar spatial distribution of cell junctions and basal lamina proteins and by typical interkinetic nuclear movements never reported before for neural rosettes derived from primate ESCs. This latter morphological feature, typical of the developing neural tube in vivo, has been recently described in vitro by Conti et al.  and reported here after direct derivation of neural precursors from the embryo.5 I) q8 S# C7 }6 f$ |' W: @
# i0 |' k0 @% ^4 }
During embryonic development, Shh is the principal ventralizing signal that patterns the developing neural tube. In this study, we showed that Shh could ventralize the otherwise dorsal fate of bovine neural rosettes, indicating that rosette cells respond to the same inductive signals inducing dorsoventral patterning during neurulation in vivo. Taken all together, these morphological and functional features indicate that rosettes derived from bovine embryos are indeed a close in vitro representation of early neurulation events in mammals.
  g: r! @$ x) s- }: N; T+ }- ~& r+ q7 {5 l9 n
We reported that, after enzymatic disaggregation, neural rosettes progressively give rise to a culture of p75-positive cells expressing neural crest-specific genes. Contrary to tissue-specific neural crest precursors, characterized by limited proliferation  have also been derived in serum-free media supplemented with bFGF and EGF during a brief period of suspension culture followed by expansion of the only cell fraction adherent to the plastic. Under these conditions, the selected population maintained both a strong neuronal commitment and a high replication ability. These findings demonstrate that different culture and selection protocols influence the characteristics of neural precursors derived from ESCs, and preliminary experiments in our laboratory suggest that a similar strategy could be applied successfully to derive neural precursors with long-term neuronal differentiation ability directly from bovine embryos.
) {% p9 o5 `. N1 D4 |* L4 ~- I/ g
# P6 j$ q$ B* _9 |" t, [$ BIn has been shown that mouse and primate ESCs, cultured on the stromal cell line PA6, can be induced to differentiate in neurons and smooth muscle cells of neural crest identity, although other neural crest derivatives, such as melanocytes and condrocytes, have not been described . In our paper, we went a step further, characterizing in the differentiated cultures the full range of cranial neural crest derivatives, including melanocytes and condrocytes. In addition, we demonstrated the possibility of deriving highly proliferative neural crest precursors cell lines, a finding never reported before in previous studies on neural crest culture.2 G8 B( T' x1 u1 O% t

7 m% a+ s4 C" j8 G  B$ oThe very efficient derivation of neural crest precursors in this study is in contrast with the few reports on the characterization of neural crest derivatives in other cell systems. This fact can depend on the intrinsic dorsal identity of bovine neural rosettes, demonstrated by the expression of Pax7, and possibly on the lack of CNS inductive signals. The aim of future studies will be to further investigate this model and to clarify the effect of other inductive signals, especially those, such as retinoic acid, which have a posteriorising effect.
# \7 d2 o$ M; L  O+ F# x4 E* K" h. e; C6 Q
Another important aspect of more general interest demonstrated in this study, in a large animal model, is the possibility to derive neural rosettes and highly proliferative neural crest precursor cell lines of normal karyotype both from fertilized and from NT embryos, the latter as potential candidates for autologous cell therapy of the nuclear donor.7 m1 d! W+ \3 C/ n' e

& E, ~0 |4 {& O8 y: G5 aCONCLUSION4 C! G: o6 C2 }7 u
7 [( A2 [: h, U2 C9 F- N8 ~7 X6 i- o
This study provides an original model of neural induction directly from preimplantation embryos of a large mammalian species and gives unprecedented in vitro access to early steps of nervous system development. Remarkably, this system includes both direct formation of neural tube-like structures and derivation of neural crest precursors from cloned and fertilized embryos. We show that neural rosettes are responsive to inductive signals acting in vivo and that for this reason they can represent a novel cell system on which to study early neurulation events in vitro. Finally, the characterization of highly proliferative cell lines of neural crest identity demonstrates the possibility of obtaining, directly from the embryo, peripheral nervous system and ectomesenchymal derivatives for potential cell therapy and tissue engineering applications.- [% P% [8 @0 E+ l& R  X
/ `* M+ n: \6 ]2 ^
DISCLOSURES) P$ G3 ~5 |6 Y% N0 [! v
3 J8 r8 D% ~8 T
The authors indicate no potential conflicts of interest.0 H: s; n! f' ]* p

7 c" t% o2 F( lACKNOWLEDGMENTS1 W: \  N4 L& t! u) h# a( O
# C2 q; ~4 ]9 w" |7 S: n% g) {
We thank G. Cossu for reading of the manuscript and J.F. Brunet, G. Cossu, R. Galli, A. Gritti, V. Schiaffino, and G. Corte for sharing reagents and antisera. This work was supported by grants from Istituto Superiore di Sanit¨¤ (Programma nazionale cellule staminali, CS 11 and CS 71) and FIRB (to V.B. and C.G.), Telethon (to V.B.), European Science Foundation through the CNR (Eurostells ERAS-CT.2003-980409), and Cariplo Foundation (to C.G.). Author contribution: G.L. derived the neural crest precursor cell lines and did the in vivo transplants. G.L., S.C., S.G.G., D.B., and V.B. performed the cell culture and in vitro differentiation experiments. G.L., S.C., S.G.G., and V.B. did the immunohistochemistry, and S.G.G. and V.B. did the histology. D.B. analyzed the karyotype. I.L. and C.G. provided the bovine embryos. V.B., S.G.G., and E.C. did the RT-PCR analyses. G.L., C.G., and V.B. wrote the paper.: L2 O% x2 y8 ~1 [" [+ }
          【參考文獻】
2 v+ G7 X/ L& r- }$ E
. G6 z( V3 v! w/ w; i% ]5 A
$ L& ?+ Q! E; f+ |; s2 }- m9 {Lee SH, Lumelsky N, Studer L et al. Efficient generation of midbrain and hindbrain neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 2000;18:675¨C679.
7 o: k( g5 r0 M6 i- A
0 Y$ O$ [4 `, h* q( L2 ~Ying QL, Stavridis M, Griffiths D et al. Conversion of embryonic stem cells into neuroectodermal precursors in adherent monoculture. Nat Biotechnol 2003;21:183¨C186.
1 f; q9 Y+ q0 ~8 J
' x! ]& H3 U+ \; t, \% l( DMizuseki K, Sakamoto T, Watanabe K et al. Generation of neural crest-derived peripheral neurons and floor plate cells from mouse and primate embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003;100:5828¨C5833.
5 \% H' ]5 s8 b. k" J0 W* N& V; C/ F8 z- u, S
Calhoun JD, Lambert NA, Mitalipova MM et al. Differentiation of rhesus embryonic stem cells to neural progenitors and neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003;306:191¨C197.' r8 S1 O& X& `: }' q2 G
  U  A! s& l; ^' R% H% O
Li XJ, Du ZW, Zarnowska ED et al. Specification of motoneurons from human embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 2005;23:215¨C221.* l3 V' l& q! u2 J: U" ^

* [1 |) u6 F- VWichterle H, Lieberam I, Porter JA et al. Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into motor neurons. Cell 2002;110:385¨C397.- Q0 R# h) q& B- R$ I  _

) j: b2 h3 o8 O2 t6 U* YConti L, Pollard SM, Gorba T et al. Niche-independent symmetrical self-renewal of a mammalian tissue stem cell. PLoS Biol 2005;3:e283.
5 u9 L& r% M( D! j  i
+ a6 M& u9 Q; R0 GPomp O, Brokhman I, Ben-Dor I et al. Generation of peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons and neural crest cells from human embryonic stem cells. STEM CELLS 2005;23:923¨C930." a( B. D7 @* T- G

/ D! r3 A/ W7 k( r6 H6 `Galli C, Lazzari G, Flechon JE et al. Embryonic stem cells in farm animals. Zygote 1994;2:385¨C389.
8 O  }5 ]* S' b
" }4 H3 |8 c/ Z8 M. BGjorret JO, Maddox-Hyttel P. Attempts towards derivation and establishment of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cultures. Reprod Fertil Dev 2005;17:113¨C124.
/ S; A/ i5 p' d; @' Q* O& g( u* E: `' `: c+ c
Lagutina I, Ponderato N, Lazzari G et al. Kinetics of oocyte maturation and subsequent development of IVF, parthenogenetic and NT bovine embryos after meiotic inhibition with roscovitine. Cloning Stem Cells 2002;4:113¨C119.
5 O& h  i4 I2 h1 j3 r. g2 r5 F$ e
% f$ _( ?$ S) p4 Y, S9 VGalli C, Lagutina I, Crotti G et al. Pregnancy: A cloned horse born to its dam twin. Nature 2003;424:635.# i) l7 q; k3 ]1 C4 I- O
/ [  w& h) S# O" G
Gardner DK, Lane M, Spitzer A. Enhanced rates of cleavage and development for sheep zygotes cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro in the absence of serum and somatic cells: Amino acids, vitamins and culturing embryos in groups stimulate development. Biol Reprod 1994;50:390¨C400.9 X8 C9 y/ y. M9 D! X  f

) k& n& x! e5 \9 SGalli R, Fiocco R, De Filippis L et al. Emx2 regulates the proliferation of stem cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system. Development 2002;129:1633¨C1644.6 e5 L9 V. l' L* _9 H- r& x( I
7 O# B5 S" ^+ N: Z
Huttner WB, Brand M. Asymmetric division and polarity of neuroepithelial cells. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1997;7:29¨C39.
# ~% {8 k2 y" X# Q' V, ]" p/ I& M' a, N
Gotz M, Stoykova A, Gruss P. Pax6 controls radial glia differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Neuron 1998;21:1031¨C1044.6 w& F; |$ j" V+ e; N- {9 A
; _' M$ |9 Y( Q4 A8 y  H
Manabe N, Hirai S, Imai F et al. Association of ASIP/mPAR-3 with adherens junctions of mouse neuroepithelial cells. Dev Dyn 2002;225:61¨C69.
6 I/ T7 H- O" r! j# @3 P5 ^; z, ]& i% U
Gotz M, Barde YA. Radial glial cells defined and major intermediates between embryonic stem cells and CNS neurons. Neuron 2005;46:369¨C372.$ {- R, c9 w2 a( \9 G" S% B

1 f! n* e. F0 A" f& i2 T9 pCampbell K, Gotz M. Radial glia: Multi-purpose cells for vertebrate brain development. Trends Neurosci 2002;25:235¨C238.
8 u2 Y1 o  A: E7 q/ L* s% E0 o' O' ?5 k: t/ e8 T  Z+ x
Briscoe J, Ericson J. Specification of neuronal fates in the ventral neural tube. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2001;11:43¨C49.
! ~: _5 Q. W/ t* }3 D, E/ R2 ?9 n7 g& L0 P6 Y% u. q
Jessell TM. Neuronal specification in the spinal cord: Inductive signals and transcriptional codes. Nat Rev Genet 2000;1:20¨C29.
/ U! J- W/ m& ^7 m; d7 b+ ~/ N$ A
& |, S$ o& ]; J9 I, ~Noble M, Dietrich J. The complex identity of brain tumors: Emerging concerns regarding origin, diversity and plasticity. Trends Neurosci 2004;27:148¨C154.
  I6 ?5 r; F' K9 y0 s# @. a( L3 @2 C2 ]+ N, {+ Z2 U/ R
De Robertis EM, Kuroda H. Dorsal-ventral patterning and neural induction in Xenopus embryos. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2004;20:285¨C308.$ w, H- D" g# y' y* J

) ]8 b- Z! n5 ]' XMunoz-Sanjuan I, Brivanlou AH. Neural induction, the default model and embryonic stem cells. Nat Rev Neurosci 2002;3:271¨C280.2 n: R. Y4 q% _- {* y- }3 w) v3 l& ~

- P  @3 [7 H! M+ Q0 ?, M' A- tMalatesta P, Hack MA, Hartfuss E et al. Neuronal or glia progeny: Regional differences in radial glia. Neuron 2004;37:751¨C764.7 Q, |# Y0 w- ?( [9 w+ W5 a: h! {2 P
: x5 b$ m* \4 S' C4 d! p
Anthony TE, Klein C, Fishell G et al. Radial glia serve as neuronal progenitors in all regions of the central nervous system. Neuron 2004;41:881¨C890.% ]4 Y; }' S* O3 d$ J0 h4 C
# C9 k/ A/ y) g5 Z- F
Merkle FT, Tramontin AD, Garcia-Verdugo JM et al. Radial glia give rise to adult neural stem cells in the subventricular zone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004;101:17528¨C17532.) d# K) Q+ ?, [/ {% @  g3 |. U* r
/ j0 A3 J7 `; I: r
Bibel M, Richter J, Schrenk K et al. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into a defined neuronal lineage. Nat Neurosci 2004;9:1003¨C1009.2 V3 m# @+ ]" m) s( O

& K) O  H7 t& F  R" q! w& r/ mKleber M, Lee HY, Wurdak H et al. Neural crest stem cell maintenance by combinatorial Wnt and BMP signaling. J Cell Biol 2005;169:309¨C320.
" `+ g% U, i! ?; M  P0 j3 ^) E
4 S0 E7 M- C& a9 }4 k1 R' fGabay L, Lowell S, Rubin LL et al. Deregulation of dorsoventral patterning by FGF confers trilineage differentiation capacity on CNS stem cells in vitro. Neuron 2003;40:485¨C499.

Rank: 2

積分
84 
威望
84  
包包
1721  
沙發
發表于 2015-7-27 18:43 |只看該作者
回復一下  

Rank: 2

積分
72 
威望
72  
包包
1574  
藤椅
發表于 2015-8-10 12:17 |只看該作者
照你這么說真的有道理哦 呵呵 不進沙子餒~~~  

Rank: 2

積分
56 
威望
56  
包包
1698  
板凳
發表于 2015-8-14 16:45 |只看該作者
干細胞之家微信公眾號
進行溜達一下  

Rank: 2

積分
75 
威望
75  
包包
2037  
報紙
發表于 2015-8-21 20:41 |只看該作者
樓主,支持!  

Rank: 2

積分
75 
威望
75  
包包
2037  
地板
發表于 2015-9-9 14:35 |只看該作者
不要等到人人都說你丑時才發現自己真的丑。  

Rank: 2

積分
73 
威望
73  
包包
1677  
7
發表于 2015-10-2 20:34 |只看該作者
幫你頂,人還是厚道點好  

Rank: 2

積分
72 
威望
72  
包包
1786  
8
發表于 2015-10-11 13:43 |只看該作者
加油啊!!!!頂哦!!!!!支持樓主,支持你~  

Rank: 2

積分
162 
威望
162  
包包
1568  
9
發表于 2015-10-13 08:27 |只看該作者
心臟干細胞

Rank: 2

積分
79 
威望
79  
包包
1613  
10
發表于 2015-10-29 11:10 |只看該作者
應該加分  
‹ 上一主題|下一主題
你需要登錄后才可以回帖 登錄 | 注冊
驗證問答 換一個

Archiver|干細胞之家 ( 吉ICP備13001605號 )

GMT+8, 2019-11-13 23:55

Powered by Discuz! X1.5

© 2001-2010 Comsenz Inc.

黑龙江时时彩杀号